Common Psychiatric Problems in Children And Parenting

Introduction Raising a child can be a very difficult job, and raising a difficult child can be even more demanding. Being able to know whether the child is going through a phase, or if something is actually wrong with them isn’t easy either. If your child throws tantrums that doesn’t automatically mean he or she has a psychiatric disorder. Self-diagnosis and labelling should be kept to a minimum when trying to understand child behaviour, according to child psychiatristsin the best paediatrician hospital in Darbhanga. Children below 5 years of age are rarely diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, however, they may be displaying symptoms of a psychiatric disorder that could be diagnosed later in childhood. Common Childhood Psychiatric Problems Early childhood behavioural and emotional disorders include: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Anxiety disorder Depression Bipolar disorder Learning disorders Conduct disorders It is likely that parents have heard of some of the popular or prevalent disorders on this list, while others are not discussed out of child psychiatry and psychology circles. Autism, ADHD and ODD remain the most prevalent of all childhood psychiatric disorders, and require professional help from a paediatric psychiatrist. Treatment will include therapy, as medicating children of young age is controversial. Parenting: Does It Play A Role? Child psychiatrists at a super-specialty hospital in Darbhanga say that although parenting style rarely is to blame for childhood psychiatric or behavioural problems, effective parenting does result in raising well-adjusted and well-behaved children. If you’re searching out solutions to help your family cope, that’s a pretty good indication that you aren’t causing your child’s issues. Parenting does play a crucial role in treating childhood psychiatric disorders. Let us talk about common parenting styles to help you understand which is the most effective in raising well-adjusted and well-behaved children. Authoritarian parenting Strict rules with no compromise, and no input from the children. Authoritative parenting Strict rules, but parents are willing to listen and cooperate with their children. More of a democracy than authoritarian parenting. Permissive parenting Few rules, and few demands put on children. There is little to no discipline in this home, and parents typically take on the role of friend. Uninvolved parenting No rules and very little interaction. These parents are detached and may reject or neglect their children. Out of these, you might have guessed which one is the most likely to raise well-adjusted and happy children. Yes, it is authoritative parenting. Children need clear rules and consequences, but they also need a parent who is willing to listen and guide them. The hospital in Darbhanga mentioned above in the essay has not only one of the best paediatric treatment in Darbhanga, but also all the adjacent regions of Bihar and Jharkhand. The child psychologists/psychiatrists there can act as counsellors for your children for the treatment of their disorders.

Power Foods For Your Kids

Why eating healthy is important for kids? A child’s body is different from an adult human being; hence their needs are also different. Children are developing and growing continuously and hence their nutrition requirements are different and higher compared to adults. When a child eats a balanced diet it ensures that he / she is getting all the nutrients which will help them to grow and develop optimally. Healthy eating from the formative years helps children maintain healthy body weight, avoid health problems, stabilize their energy, and sharpen their minds. A healthy diet has a very good effect on the children’s mental and emotional well-being. A child who is given healthy food will receive a lifetime bonus of stronger mind and body since he / she is likely to hold on to these habits throughout life. Children can be taught to eat well with the help of a child nutritionist who is aware of the child’s needs and also counsels the child which is the key to convincing the children.

Healthy Food Groups to include in the Child’s Diet: Fruits and vegetables: Fresh fruits and vegetables are filled with micronutrients like vitamins and minerals which are needed for proper growth and development in children. Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables adds color to the plate and provides antioxidants instrumental in helping build a strong immune system. The fiber in the fruits and vegetables will give them a healthy digestive system. Grains (cereal) foods: Whole grains like millets, brown rice, whole wheat pasta, bread, oats, whole wheat, quinoa, etc contain complex carbohydrates and fiber which seem to be lacking in today’s diets. Fiber may help prevent constipation by keeping their bowel regular and also helps to keep the child satisfied after a meal or snack. Refined grain products like cakes, biscuits, white bread, cookies, etc can be very high in sugar and saturated fats and devoid of the much needed nutrients for growth. Nuts: Nuts like almonds, walnuts, pistachios, etc provide nutrients like Vitamin E, fiber, protein, B group vitamins, healthy fats, iron and many more. Nuts can be given to children as a quick healthy snack in replacement of snacks like biscuits and chips. However, caution should be exercised while giving whole nuts to the younger children for the risk of choking. Powdered nuts are a great option for them. Milk and milk products: Milk and its products are excellent sources of calcium, an important nutrient for strong, healthy bones and teeth. Besides calcium, milk also contains good quality protein and Vitamin B12 which is an important nutrient for vegetarians. Curd contains good bacteria which is important for gut health. Lean meat, fish, eggs, tofu, seeds, dals, beans: Proteins from dals, legumes, tofu, seeds, eggs, lean meat and fish contain essential amino acids important for growth and development. The amount of protein each child needs depends on his / her age and activity level. Proteins from animal sources are of good quality while plant proteins are incomplete (lacking in one or more essential amino acids) proteins. But, children on a vegetarian diet can also get the essential amino acids by eating a wide range of plant proteins. Children need a source of protein at each meal. Eating a variety of foods from each of these groups is the key to good health in children. There are certain other points to be kept in mind while planning a healthy diet for children: Teenage girls are more prone to iron deficiency due to the loss of blood each month during menstruation. Including leafy greens, beans, lean meat, fish, eggs and dried fruits will help increase the intake of iron in the diet. Iron deficiency anemia can be a leading cause of tiredness, irritability, sluggishness, etc. Keep a check on the total sugar intake. Do not ban sweet foods completely. You could give a healthy twist to their favorite desserts with less sugar by adding dried fruits that are naturally sweet. Also, check the food labels of any packaged foods that you may buy for them to look out for the hidden sources of sugar. Teach children how to read the food labels. Cook more home based meals as restaurant and take away foods are also loaded with salt, sugar and unhealthy fat. Focus on all the food groups rather than on just what the child would want. He / she needs nutrients from all the food groups and no one group provides all the nutrients. Over the past few decades there has been an overall shift in the eating pattern of children. The fast food consumption has increased. Research shows that 75% of children who were eating fast food or outside food are taking in 30-40% of more calories than those who did not eat outside. Also, their intake for fruits, vegetables, milk and grains is very less. This high intake of energy and lack of physical activity is a leading cause of obesity in children today. Also, due exposure to fast foods children now-a-days are more inclined towards unhealthy food and regular intake of these foods could increase their risk to lifestyle diseases at an early age. Giving a healthy diet to children can have a profound effect on their health, make them sharp and keep them in a good mood. Nutritionist in Mumbai and Dietitians in Mumbai can help you change the eating habits of your children without creating a war zone at meal times.

How Do the Experts of the Childcare Granville Help

If you are a parent then you may know how important it is to take care of a kids at the early age. Teaching of the kids is the biggest concern for most of the parents. Your children will learn from you, therefore, you need to handle yourself alongside your kids carefully. Your kids will be watching you all the times. But you may not always stay along your children due to some sorts of official duties. The official duties may appear as a burden in the path of being a good parent. In order to handle such situation, you need to hand over your children to the people of Childcare Granville. The experts can take care of your children in the best way possible. How will the experts will take care of kids? The experts will timely feed the children of young ages and ensure that they get what they are looking for. Here, the first part of the sentence may create some confusion in you. It is better to clear the confusion now. You should know that the experts do not only take care of the kids but also teach them the lessons that they need to practice in their daily lives. Therefore, the experts will feed all the children but ensure that they provide enough training for the little bigger kids so that they can feed themselves properly. It is just the one side of how the experts will take care of your kids or toddlers. The next part comes with children’s learning section. The children can learn from the basic activities at first. Then, they will learn the systematic lessons. The experts from childcare Western Sydney can teach the young kids how to start talking and some basic factors regarding talking to the people. At the same time, they will also ensure that the children are getting enough sleep at different times. Sleep is an important factor for growing up of the children. How the children will learn basic lessons? The experts in Childcare Granville will provide lessons in the method of group learning to the children. It will help them to know each other of their same standard and gradually get them school ready in a perfect manner. At the same time, this type of training sessions will help the young kids to socialize as well. Here you may want to know what kinds of lessons the experts of preschool Liverpool will help the kids to learn. Here is a list of lessons that the experts provide the children – Reading lessons Writing lessons Numerical lessons Multicultural programs and History lessons Group training sessions for performing arts Science lessons These will be provided to the kids between aged 2 to 5. It will benefit the children in a proper way. In fact, sometimes the children’s parents need to come along to participate in family training sessions. It will also help the parents to learn how to handle their kids at home. In short, the programs of Childcare Granville do not only train the kids but also make the parents learn the tricks of training as well as to control their kids in a proper way.

How Serious Is Childhood Obesity?

It is true that obesity does not only attack adults, but it also attacks children. Nowadays, there are a lot of restaurants and food courts that sell unhealthy foods. Some of the most popular foods are hot dogs, pizza, hamburgers, fried chicken, sausages, and much more. Most of the children prefer those foods when their parents bring them to a food court. They do not know that those foods are dangerous for their health and can cause early obesity. But, there is a solution to handle it. You only need to count on Obesity surgery doctor to solve your children obesity. How serious is childhood obesity today?

Actually, it is the parents’ job to control their kids’ diet, but it becomes out of the way after a while. Most of them give what their kids want to eat without thinking of the bad effects. Maybe, it is not a big deal if you give some burgers once a month, but it will be dangerous when you give it to them every day. Instead of fried chicken, burgers, and hotdogs, some foods that may also cause obesity to your kids are snacks. Eating too many snacks are not good because the snacks may contain too much fat and sugar that will be accumulating in your kids’ body. Besides, your kids also do not like to do a lot of activities and they just prefer playing video games and watching animation movies at home while eating their snacks. It is a bad habit for kids anyway. One thing that contributes towards kids getting fat or obese, is the lack of exercise. Once kids get obese, they will have difficulties to lose weight. They need to give their so much effort to get their body back normal again. However, obesity surgery doctors are there to solve these problems of childhood obesity. But, there is no argument that a prevention action is much better than cure. Once realized that kids’ are getting obese, a quick action and consulting obesity surgery doctors for further treatment are vital. The obesity may lead to several other conditions as well. These include coronary heart diseases, sleep apnea, joint pain, asthma, stroke and so much would be wrong to imply that these diseases cannot affect an individual of healthy weight, but for a child with obesity, is more likely to develop these in the near future.

Why Are Maternity Tours Important at The Time of Pregnancy?

Planning for a baby is never an easy task. It required analysing all the future aspects starting from the hospital, coverage, health, medical charges and care for the mother and the baby. For couples who are expecting a baby, it is necessary to pick the hospital well in advance and plan for the maternity tours. This is the right way to get familiar with the hospital staff, nurses, doctors and the environment. It is easy to adjust to a place if you have visited it once. The concept of the tour to the hospital before the final delivery is new but is very beneficial to both the pregnant lady and the hospital. In Singapore, there are hospitals that provide group tours to pregnant ladies along with an individual visit option. Not everyone is aware of the benefits of maternity tours during pregnancy. These tours allow pregnant ladies to get aware of the delivery process, gather essential information, knowledge of the best routes to reach the hospital, etc. The tour also helps women to feel relaxed and get out of anxiety that is common at the time of pregnancy. It provides an option to ask the relevant questions and get a clear knowledge of what happens in the hospital when the labour pain starts. Adding to this, there are some other important factors that you should consider during pregnancy. Newborn coverage is one of them, where utmost care should be given to the new baby. The baby needs to be provided complete coverage of any medical complexity, illness or birth problem. For this, hospitals also provide additional coverage for the newborn and include the charge in the delivery package. Make sure to get complete details on these factors once you pick a hospital. Make sure to analyse the newborn care cost, coverage options, insurance premium, deductibles, enrolment of the child, medical qualifications and other factors. Health and medical treatment are very important for the pregnant lady and the newborn baby. So make a proper plan when you pick the hospital and understand the facilities, newborn coverage, treatment cost, and other facilities that you get. No matter whether you are expecting a normal delivery or complex one, you need to be well prepared and coverage for any medical complexity and increased cost of delivery. Thus, provide complete coverage to the newborn and educate mother on what she will be facing in the hospital at the time of delivery.

Know More About Child Psychology

Children are one of the cutest gifts of the world. People love them. But, it is very difficult to understand them as well as their behavior as their mood swing every time. Understanding child behavior emotions and thoughts is called child psychology. The study of child psychology helps to understand behavior, nationality, age, career, health, and more. It helps an individual to learn important information. It is helpful to provide the best for every child. Each child is different with their own wants and special needs. Child psychology revolves around children and their behaviors, emotions and thoughts. From recent few years, child psychology has been a better understood subject. The present rate of juvenile crime and delinquency might not have reached such alarming proportions. It is the feelings about and reactions to the inputs during childhood that formulate a youth’s policies and beliefs for future life. According to a study, psychological problems that crop up in childhood can translate into serious consequences like criminality later on & also unresolved psychological complications can result in an unhappy and traumatized adulthood. These are some of the potholes along the highway of modern life that child psychologists help to fill. In childhood, continuous changes occur. There are numerous issues that a child encounters as they progress through their childhood, pre-teen years, and into adolescence. At early age of childhood, a child should be given as much love and attention as possible, to allow it to develop physically, mentally and emotionally. The children should be taught how to eat, walk and talk and how to get the most out of what it learns at school and college. When a child joins his first school, he will have that feeling of lack of self esteem. He or she is not that open to meeting new people at a sudden time. He might feel really down and stressed at first. It will take time depending on the child how quick he can adopt such situation. Children are also being afraid of their dreams which they do not understand. If a child had a dream which terrifies him too much, he will then be afraid to go to sleep knowing he might dream of that again. Hence they should be treated carefully. We need to take care of our children not only with his physical and educational needs but as well as his psychological need. Understanding psychological need is necessary for proper child’s growth.

Reasons to Have a Personalised Maternity Insurance

Maternity is the most crucial time in the life of young couples. You get almost 9 months to get ready for it and make necessary preparation. Maternity involves a lot of money and medical complexities that can put anyone in trouble if no proper preparation is made beforehand. The safe delivery and health of the child and mother are the necessity of modern time. Just make sure to get the maternity insurance from the reliable insurance company. This is the best way to provide the required medical facility for both mother and the child. It is also noted that most of the maternity insurance are not available as individual, you can get them along with the regular health insurance plan. It is sure that when expenses cross over saving, getting the right pregnancy insurance is the good decision. With the high demand of insurance coverage for maternity, the insurance companies have also started providing maternity coverage under their various health plans or even adding them as a rider. Thus, before you buy insurance for maternity, make sure to consider various factors like the medical facilities provided and the medical complexities covered in it. Completely discuss the amount of medical coverage and the coverage provided to the new baby.

With so many reasons and medical expenses, you need to understand the requirement and benefits associated with the good pregnancy insurance. The medical company provides the cashless payment for all the expenses occurred in the hospital at the time of delivery. There are dedicated hospitals that have their special insurance for pregnant ladies. Make sure to check the list of hospitals added to the insurance plan so that you get the right medical treatment from the best hospital in Singapore. You can also compare various hospitals based on the quality of treatment, nurses, location and other facilities. The right time to buy a maternity insurance in Singapore is to get it just after the marriage. It will be included in the health insurance plan and will be very easy in terms of paying premium and obtain the claim. If you fail to get one, make sure to get it right in the first month of pregnancy. Get complete details like the days for which hospital expenses will be covered, limit of the claim, tax benefit, cashless claim, coverage of complications such as caesarean, premature birth, etc and health coverage for your baby.

Infant And Child Health Tips From Top Pediatric Consultants

Pediatric Consultants Keeping your little one happy and healthy is your first priority. As you go through the experience of parenthood, you will look for ways to improve your child’s development and growth. Here are a few infant and child healthcare tips to aid with your child’s development. Help to get your baby to latch Breastfeeding is new to you and your baby, so it’s not surprising that you may face latch-on issues while breastfeeding your newborn. For difficult and persistent latch problems, pediatric consultants suggest using temporary nipple shields to help with this process. You may have to use the shields for an entire month before your baby latches onto your nipple without them. Made of thin, soft silicone that doesn’t interfere with nipple stimulation, the nipple shield is worn during breastfeeding. Holes at the tip allow milk to flow to the baby. Breast milk is good for your baby The benefits of breastfeeding extend well beyond basic nutrition. Apart from breast milk containing all the vitamins and nutrients your baby needs in the first six months of life, breast milk has substances that protect your baby from illness. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that breastfeeding continue for at least 12 months, and thereafter for as long as the mother and baby desire. The World Health Organization recommends continued breastfeeding up to 2 years of age or beyond. Solid foods if introduced must complement the mother’s milk In the first six months after birth, breast milk can support the baby’s optimal growth and development. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) states that water, juice, and other foods are generally unnecessary in this period. Although babies enjoy discovering new tastes and textures, solid foods should not replace breastfeeding, but complement breast milk as the infant’s main source of nutrients throughout the first year. As the child enters his first year, introduction of various solid foods will increase but breast milk remains an ideal staple of your child’s diet. Nutrition for 9 to 12 month old babies

Just like adults, infants need nutritious meals throughout the day to stay happy and healthy. As you introduce her to the world of food and nutrition, come up with fun, simple meals three times a day. A wholesome meal for your infant Though their serving sizes are small (for a 6-month-old, a tablespoon or two can be a serving; for a 1-year-old it can be 1/4 cup), your child should get five servings of fruits and vegetables each day. Fruits and vegetables are vital for nutrition so serve food with lots of different colors, including green (peas, green beans, spinach, asparagus, zucchini), orange (sweet potatoes, cantaloupe), yellow (squash, bananas), and red (cooked tomatoes, red peppers). Feed them breads and grains. Babies readily eat cereal, cooked noodles, soft breads and rice. It’s easy to insure they’re getting enough dairy, since babies at this age are still drinking 16 to 24 ounces of breast milk or formula a day. Don’t forget to serve extra protein in the form of chicken, fish, beans, or eggs. Carefully follow the vaccine routine Vaccines are very safe, with only minimal side effects such as pain or swelling at the injection site. The United States’ long-standing vaccine safety system ensures that vaccines are as safe as possible. Currently, the United States has the safest vaccine supply in its history. Millions of children safely receive vaccines each year. Though babies get temporary immunity (protection) from their mothers during the last few weeks of pregnancy from diseases the mom is resistant to, breastfeeding may also protect your baby temporarily from minor infections, like colds. These antibodies do not last long, however, they leave your baby vulnerable to disease. You need to visit a pediatric care center with your baby for regular vaccinations. It is true that breastfeeding usually results in better immunity than vaccination, but the risks are much greater. Finding the perfect balance between nutrition, breastfeeding and vaccinations, with time, love and attention, will greatly enhance your child’s early experience.

Baby Development And Nutrition

baby developmentbaby development Baby development period can be both – overwhelming and pleasant, at the same time. To see your child reciprocate and converse with you is the best feeling in the world. However, as a child turns 2-years old, there can be various concerns that can arise including health issue and the constant questioning of is the child growing up right. These worries and concerns about baby development are not new and certainly not something that cannot be tackled. As a parent, it is important you observe and comprehend your young one’s changing behaviour, growth and needs. This is the time where the initial phase of the personality of a child is developed. Their speech and thought processes are honed and they become more receptive to the outer world. Thus, it is crucial that, as parents, we pay keen attention to the other facets that necessarily affect the baby milestone process. One such facet is nutrition. It is widely said that what we eat is what we become and hence, it is crucial that your child eats healthy and nutritious food every day. Take a look at points mentioned below to know what foods will aid which baby milestone. Brain development: This development is crucial and continuous. The food that the child eats in during this development will necessarily affect his/her cognitive and focus. Hence, it crucial that the child gets its required amount of iron and calcium. Foods that can aid the brain development of a child are: Eggs Yoghurt Vegetables Fish Nuts and seeds Fruits such as apple and plums Oatmeal and cereals Emotional development: It isn’t just intellect, nutrition also has a direct impact on the growth and development of a child’s emotional quotient. Important minerals namely calcium plays a vital role in the overall development of the emotional system. Undernourished or not well-nourished child is observed to develop illnesses such as depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and even autism, at a very early age. Foods that support emotional development are: Milk Yoghurt Fruits such as bananas, apricots, plums Cereals that have all the essential nutrients, minerals and vitamins. Speech development: The communication development is more or less is a direct impact of how well the brain development stage has been. Parents need to keep an eye for certain allergies that the child may develop over a period of time towards certain foods. Nutritionists generally advise keeping the gluten and casein intake at bay. Preparing three meals a day can be taxing, however, to ensure that the baby milestones are not affected, it is crucial that the child is feed all-natural and home cooked meals. Foods that aid communication Seasonal fruits Milk Nuts and seeds Chocolate (one bar a week) Physical development: A healthy diet invariably affects the physical growth and development of the child. During this period the bone, eyesight, skin and muscle development is crucial. Thus, the daily diet should include foods that necessarily aids these developments. You can opt for cereals and oatmeal for breakfast as it is quick to make filled with nutrition. However, it is crucial to choose the right cereal for your child. Cereals such as Ceregrow packed with nutrition. It has the goodness of milk and nourishment of assorted fruits. It also has age appropriate 15 vitamins and minerals that aid the baby development process. Foods that aid physical development: Milk and dairy products Bananas Meat and poultry Water Apples Seeds and nuts Sprouts and legumes

Types of Paediatric Heart Surgery

When a child is having CHD (congenital heart defects) right from the birth of a child is affected by heart diseases after birth, the treatment is needed for the child’s wellbeing. There are many kinds of heart disorders ranging from minor to severe. These disorders can occur inside the heart or in the large blood vessels located outside the heart. Specific heart defects may not need repair as they can heal as the baby grows while some heart disorders may need surgery right after the child’s birth. There are various types of Paediatric Heart Surgery, and each one has its benefits. Let’s have a look at them.

Patent ductus arteriosus(PDA) ligation: “While in the womb, each baby has a blood vessel called ductus arteriosus, which runs between the aorta and the pulmonary artery. When the baby starts to breathe on his/her own, it will close by itself. If it is opened even after the birth, then it is called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA).” A PDA Ligation surgery is required to cure this in case the medicines won’t work out. How is it done? The surgeon will make a cut on the left side of the chest, and he divides or cuts the ductus arteriosus. This procedure is done in NICU – Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Repairment of Coarctation Of the Aorta: “When a part of the aorta becomes narrow – like an hourglass timer, then it will lead to Coarctation of the aorta. The blood flow to the lower parts of the body will be affected by this disorder which in turn results in high blood pressure.” -To repair this defect, doctors usually undergo a surgery. How is it done? There are many ways to repair this disorder. ●The surgeon cuts the narrow section in the heart, and he will make it bigger with an artificial synthetic patch. ●Sometimes, the surgeon eliminates the narrow section by stitching the remaining ends together. ●Another way to repair the problem is to do a “bypass surgery.” In this case, the surgeon connects a tube on either side of the narrow section and provides a bypass to the vital parts of the aorta. Hence, blood flows through the tunnel and bypasses this thin section. Atrial septal defect (ASD) repair: “When there occurs a hole in Atrial Septum – a wall between the left and right atria of the heart, it is called an ASD.” -When ASD occurs, blood with and without oxygen will mix with each other, leads to various medical problems. Surgery is the best option to repair this disorder. How is it done? Open-Heart surgery is done to repair ASD. The surgeon will close the septum by stitching it or put a patch on the hole to cover it. Ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair: “When the hole occurred in the ventricular septum – the wall between the left and right ventricles of the heart, then it will lead to VSD.” -It will also mix the oxygenated blood with used blood. The condition will lead to irregular heartbeats and other heart problems. Surgery is the best option to repair this disorder. How is it done? In cases where the VSD causes heart failure or endocarditis, open-heart surgery is needed to repair it. Usually, the surgeon closes the hole in the septum with a patch. Transposition of the great vessels repair: ” When aorta and pulmonary veins originate from extremely other sides of the heart, this transposition leads to many congenital disabilities.” -Placing those vessels back in their right places require open-heart surgery. How is it done? The surgeons do an arterial switch to solve the issue. They divide the aorta and pulmonary artery and connect them to where they belong! – pulmonary artery to the right ventricle and the aorta and coronary arteries to the left ventricle. Truncus arteriosus repair: “Truncus Arteriosus is a condition where all three blood vessels – aorta, coronary arteries, and pulmonary artery originates from one common trunk.” -It is one of the rarest conditions that occur in the child. The disorder is very complicated, and it requires one or two more surgeries for complete cure. How is it done? The surgeon separates the pulmonary arteries from the aortic trunk and the patches all the defects. After doing these, the surgeon creates a connection between the right ventricle and the pulmonary arteries. Tricuspid atresia repair: “When the tricuspid valve is deformed, narrowed, or it is missing, then it leads to a disorder called Tricuspid Atresia.” -Babies who are born with Tricuspid Artesia are ‘blue’ because they cannot receive blood to the lungs. This condition will restrict the circulation of blood to the lungs. Surgery is the only way to repair this problem, but the baby may be given a medicine called prostaglandin E which will keep the patent ductus arteriosus open for a while. How is it done? The surgeon repairs the tricuspid valve by replacing the lid or put in a shunt so that blood can get to the lungs. Total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) repair: “When the pulmonary veins resend the blood from lungs to the right side of the heart instead of the left side, it is called TAPVR.” -Surgery is the only cure for this disorder, and if the newborn has no severe symptoms, it is done in the first six months of the baby’s life. How is it done? The surgeon will place the pulmonary veins back to the left side of the heart where they are supposed to be, and he will further check for any abnormal connections. If there is any, he will close that too. Hypoplastic left heart repair: “If a left heart is very poorly developed, it leads to a disorder called Hypoplastic Left Heart.” -This is a very severe heart defect, and it causes death in most babies if not treated well. Only specialized cardiac medical centres can do this operation, and it usually requires series of three heart operations to attain a complete cure.

How is it done? In the first operation, the surgeon creates a new vessel from the pulmonary artery and the aorta, to carry blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. The second operation is most often done when the baby is 4 to 6 months old followed by the third one at a year after the second operation. With new advances in testing and treatment, most surgeries are successful, and it leads children to healthy and productive lives.